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Molecular Hydrogen has been applied in a plethora of disease models using a variety of different routes of administration. Regardless of how molecular hydrogen was used, most of the studies reported significant changes.
Below are just some of the over 350 research studies using Molecular Hydrogen. We will be updating this page regularly and include summaries for each study.


Hydrogen-rich water reduces inflammatory responses and prevents apoptosis of peripheral blood cells in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial 


This study is the first randomized clinical trial investigating the antioxidant effects of hydrogen-rich water (H2-water) in healthy individuals. The study found that four-week consumption of H2-water led to a significant increase in antioxidant capacity and a decrease in oxidative stress in DNA. The study also found that H2-water significantly reduced the frequencies of apoptotic cells and circulating CD14+ cells, and that RNA-sequencing analysis identified a transcriptional network of inflammatory response as the most significant biological function modulated by H2-water. Additionally, the study found that H2-water significantly reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG, which is a marker of oxidative stress and a risk factor for various diseases. The study suggests that H2-water has antioxidant properties and has a beneficial effect on reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.


Consumption of water containing a high concentration of molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (Human)(Water)(2012)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects about 1% of the population. It is characterized by destruction of bone and cartilage. The harmful free radical hydroxyl radical has been suggested to contribute to RA. Molecular hydrogen selectively neutralizes hydroxyl radicals. This study suggests that molecular hydrogen saturated water may be useful to complement conventional RA therapy by reducing oxidative stress.

Hydrogen gas improves survival rate and organ damage in zymosan-induced generalized inflammation model. (Mouse)(Gas)(2012)

 Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. MODS is defined as the progressive deterioration of function of several organs or organ systems in patients with severe sepsis, septic shock, multiple trauma, severe burns, pancreatitis and so on. Many animal and human studies have found that excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production play an important role in the pathogenesis of MODS. Since molecular hydrogen (H2) exerts a therapeutic antioxidant activity, this study aims to prove its beneficial effect on MODS. Zymosan is a chemical solution that induces generalized inflammation which is similar to the pathogenesis of MODS. Notable findings from this study include:
  • H2 prevented abnormal changes of oxidant and antioxidant systems in ZY-challenged mice.
  • H2 improved survival rate in ZY-challenged mice.
  • H2 treatment reduced the levels of early and late inflammatory cytokines in ZY-challenged mice.
Overall, this study confirmed that H2 can be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of conditions associated with inflammation and MODS.

Molecular hydrogen suppresses FcεRI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of mast cells (Mouse)(Water)(2009)

 Immediate-type allergies are not necessarily caused by oxidative stress, and the effects of molecular hydrogen for allergies have not been reported to date. In this study, the preventive effects of molecular hydrogen for type I allergic reaction was confirmed in a mouse model. Molecular hydrogen treatment significantly reduced the release of b-hexosaminidase, a marker of degranulation, indicating that degranulation was suppressed by molecular hydrogen. Molecular hydrogen also mediated NADPH oxidase activity in mast cells. Furthermore, inhibition of NADPH oxidase by molecular hydrogen resulted in suppression of FceRI-mediated signal transduction in mast cells. Hydrogen attenuated type I allergy in mice through suppression of the FceRI-mediated signal transduction. Our studies suggest that hydrogen may be effective for a wide variety of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, pollinosis and urticaria in humans, due to its capacity to modulate signal transduction.


Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on muscle fatigue caused by acute exercise in elite athletes. (Human)(Water)(2012)

 High intensity muscle contractions during short intervals of exercise causes oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can contribute to fatigue, overtraining symptoms, and injury. Molecular hydrogen is a powerful antioxidant that can help reduce oxidative stress. This study examined ten male soccer players and the effects of hydrogen water on performance. It was found through this study that:
  • Athletes drinking hydrogen rich water prevented elevation of blood lactate during exercise
  • Peak torque of the hydrogen rich water group didn’t decrease at the early phase, thereby showing reduced muscle fatigue


Therapeutic Approach to Neurodegenerative Diseases by Medical Gases: Focusing on Redox Signaling and Related Antioxidant Enzymes (2010)

The brain consumes 20 to 50% of total body oxygen consumption even though it only accounts for 2% of the body weight. Meaning that brain function is highly dependent on a consistent supply of oxygen. Since 2-5% of oxygen consumed by cells is converted into reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a byproduct of cellular respiration, the brain most likely undergoes the most ROS damage. Hydrogen can prevent oxidative stress damage which may be beneficial for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and ALS.

Hydrogen-rich saline improves memory function in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer’s disease by reduction of oxidative stress.(Rat)(Saline)(2010)(Alzheimer’s Disease Model)

Alzheimer’s disease affects 5% of the population older than 65 years. There is an enormous medical need for novel therapeutic strategies that can alleviate the underlying causes of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, it was observed that molecular hydrogen-rich saline improved learning and memory functions due to molecular hydrogen’s properties as an anti-neuroinflammatory and antioxidant.

Therapeutic Effects of Hydrogen in Animal Models of Parkinson’s Disease(Review)(2010) 

The main pathological feature of Parkinson’s disease was the loss of neurons in the substantia nigra. A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress is closely related to the onset and progression of both Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease. MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) was found to induce PD-like pathology by neurotoxic mechanism of mitochondrial impairment. This causes oxidative damage and neurodegeneration. Overall, it seems through the evidence so far that molecular hydrogen is an effective antioxidant that can take care of oxidative stress that causes neurodegeneration. Molecular hydrogen is a promising therapeutic modality for Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegnerative diseases and it should be studied under clinical settings.

Drinking Hydrogen Water Ameliorated Cognitive Impairment in Senescence-Accelerated Mice. (Mouse)(Water)(2010)(Age-related cognitive impairment Model)

Molecular hydrogen has been reported to have neuroprotective effects due to its antioxidant properties. According to this study, treatment with molecular hydrogen water for 30 days prevented age-related declines in cognitive function, and also elevated antioxidant activity. Drinking molecular hydrogen water for 18 weeks also slowed neurodegeneration in the hippocampus.

Consumption of Molecular Hydrogen Prevents the Stress-Induced Impairments in Hippocampus-Dependent Learning Tasks during Chronic Physical Restraint in Mice (Mouse)(Water)(2009)

 Oxidative stress is widely accepted as a contributor to decreased brain function. Antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress in the brain have been the focus of much research throughout the years. However, most antioxidants are not able to cross the blood-brain-barrier to neutralize oxidative stress in the brain. Molecular hydrogen is an antioxidant that can easily pass through the blood-brain-barrier due to it’s small size and gaseous form. Molecular hydrogen gas inhalation is not practical for prevention of oxidative stress in the brain during high stress situations, which is why this study examined the effectiveness of molecular hydrogen rich water in delivering molecular hydrogen to the brain. Molecular hydrogen water suppressed accumulation of oxidative stress markers in the mice that were tested. Hydrogen water also helped mice with learning tasks compared to mice that were given control water.

Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents superoxide formation in brain slices of vitamin C-depleted SMP30/GNL knockout mice (Mouse)(Water)(2008)

This study showed that a significant 27.2% less superoxide formed in the molecular hydrogen group subjected to ischemia-reperfusion than the control water group. Superoxide is a precursor of the dangerous hydroxyl radical. If superoxide is not taken care of quickly by superoxide dismutase, it may eventually convert into a hydroxyl radical. The decrease in superoxide shows that molecular hydrogen may be stimulating the activity of the superoxide dismutase enzyme.


 Hydrogen-supplemented drinking water protects cardiac allografts from inflammation-associated deterioration(Rat)(Water)(2012)

 Graft injury as a result of oxidation and tissue inflammation is the major cause of allograft rejection and vasculopathy. Immunosuppressive regimens have demonstrated limited efficacy overall. Molecular hydrogen possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of molecular hydrogen in protecting cardiac allografts. Drinking molecular hydrogen water increased mitochondrial activity in allografts by more than 50%. It was confirmed through this study that drinking molecular hydrogen water prevented cardiac allograft rejection.

H2 Gas Improves Functional Outcome After Cardiac Arrest to an Extent Comparable to Therapeutic Hypothermia in a Rat Model(Rat)(Gas)(2012)

 Cardiac arrest causes oxidative stress injury by ischemia-reperfusion. When cells are deprived of blood (ischemia) and then are suddenly given blood (reperfusion) severe electron leakage takes place which leads to free radical production. Since molecular hydrogen has many potential therapeutic applications as an antioxidant, it was used in this study to compare its effectiveness in improving functional outcome after a heart attack. One of the findings in this study was that the survival rate 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was 92% for the molecular hydrogen group compared to 43% for the control group.

Consumption of hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (Mouse)(Water)(2008)

 Atherosclerosis is the build-up of plaque in the arteries that can lead to stroke, heart attack, and even death. The plaque consists of an accumulation of macrophages and oxidized products of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). Oxidation caused by free radicals is one of the major factors in the prevalence of atherosclerosis. This study examined the hypothesis that since molecular hydrogen is an efficient antioxidant by gaseous diffusion into tissues and cells, it should potentially be able to prevent atherosclerosis. The results from the study showed that molecular hydrogen saturated water decreased oxidative stress level and prevented the formation of atherosclerosis, at least in mice.

Hydrogen-rich saline protects myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats (Rat)(Saline)(2009)

 Restoring blood flow to the heart after a heart attack is the most effective long-term therapy. Although restoration of blood flow is important, the rate at which the blood is reintroduced is more critical because oxygen triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This burst of ROS triggers signaling networks that lead to cellular necrosis and apoptosis (cell death). This study tests and confirms the hypothesis that molecular hydrogen will be effective in minimizing ROS generation during the reperfusion of the heart. The improvement in post-ischemic functional recovery was paralleled to a significant reduction in infarct size, decreased plasma and myocardium MDA concentration, attenuation of cardiac cell apoptosis and DNA oxidative stress in AAR. This cardiac improvement may result from radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenging effect of molecular hydrogen.
Intermittent hypoxia increases free radical production. Molecular hydrogen (H2) may have an antioxidant effect by reducing hydroxyl radicals. This study examined the effects of molecular hydrogen gas on lipid metabolism and left ventricular remodeling induced by hypoxia in mice.

Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in mice (Mouse)(Gas)(2011)




 Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors (Human)(Water)(2011)

 A randomized, placebo controlled study showed that patients receiving radiotherapy for liver tumors who were drinking molecular hydrogen water had lower ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) metabolites and higher QOL (Quality of Life) scores than patients who drank placebo water during treatment. This shows that molecular hydrogen may be a powerful adjunct to conventional cancer therapies.

Hydrogen protects mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma (Mouse)(Saline)(2011)

 Ionizing radiation is a carcinogen that promotes tumor formation and progression inside human tissues. This study used ionizing radiation to induce lymphoma in mice, and treated the mice using molecular hydrogen rich saline. It was found that molecular hydrogen treatment significantly increased the survival rate of mice, by decreasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the cells by ionizing radiation.

Inhibitory Effect of Electrolyzed Reduced Water on Tumor Angiogenesis (Cell)(Water)(2008)

 It has been reported that cancer cells produce high amounts of ROS, including H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide). Angiongenesis is an important factor in tumor growth. If angiongenesis of a tumor is halted, it leads to the necrosis of the tumor. Angiogenesis is regulated by VEGF, which has a connection to H2O2. Molecular Hydrogen is known to be an effective antioxidant that can stimulate the action of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. This study showed that molecular hydrogen helped decrease H2O2 formation in the cells, thereby reducing angiogenesis proliferation.

Molecular hydrogen alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice (Mouse)(Gas)(2008)

 Cisplatin is a widely used cancer drug in the treatment of a wide range of tumors. However, cisplatin is nephrotoxic due to its tendency to cause oxidative stress. Since molecular hydrogen acts as an efficient antioxidant, we want to show that molecular hydrogen can effectively minimize the nephrotoxicity and other side effects of cisplatin. In this study it was confirmed that drinking hydrogen water caused hydrogen from the stomach to be delivered to the blood in 3 minutes, and that it reduced the level of oxidative stress. Molecular Hydrogen functionally and morphologically protects the kidney against cisplatin-induced toxicity without impairing its anti-tumor activity.

Hyperbaric hydrogen therapy: a possible treatment for cancer in mice (Mouse)(Gas)(Water)(1975)

 One of the oldest studies on molecular hydrogen, published in 1975. Mice with tumors who were exposed to hydrogen therapy had (i)tumors that turned black (ii)tumors that had shrunk at their base and seemed to be in the process of being “Pinched off”. Continuous exposure to hyperbaric hydrogen chamber caused remission of the multiple squamous cell carcinomas. Even in this initial study, the scientists who conducted the research theorized that hydrogen may scavenge the •OH radical by means of the exothermic reaction: H2 + •OH –> H2O + H•. It’s also interesting to note that it was proposed in this article that the remaining H• could effectively scavenge superoxide radicals (O2- to form OH2-)



 Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome (Human)(Water)(2013)

This study confirmed that molecular hydrogen can decrease LDL-cholesterol levels in human patients, based on the findings in a similar study using hamsters. Total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol levels were significantly decreased after 10 weeks of molecular hydrogen treatment in all 20 patients who participated in this study. Out of the 20 patients, 10 of the patients were smokers. It seemed that the lipid lowering effects of molecular hydrogen were slightly better in smokers than nonsmokers. HDL-Cholesterol and glucose levels in the blood of the patients were unaffected. Molecular hydrogen also decreased the oxidation of LDL. LDL oxidation leads to inflammation and contributes to atherosclerosis. Overall, molecular hydrogen holds promise as a powerful tool to control lipid metabolism disorders.

Hydrogen Improves Glycemic Control in Type1 Diabetic Animal Model by Promoting Glucose Uptake into Skeletal Muscle (Cell)(Mouse)(Water)(Saline)(2012)

This study demonstrated that molecular hydrogen stimulates glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and may be a novel therapy for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus patients. A hypothetical model of molecular hydrogen in action is shown below.

Molecular hydrogen improves obesity and diabetes by inducing hepatic FGF21 and stimulating energy metabolism in db/db mice.(Mouse)(Water)(2011)

In this study, type 2 diabetes model mice were used in which oxidative stress accumulated in the liver lead to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Chronic consumption of molecular hydrogen rich water reduced oxidative stress in the liver of these mice, which is something that has been confirmed in many different studies. The notable finding in this study was that molecular hydrogen rich water enhanced the expression of a hepatic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which is a regulator of energy expenditure. This finding suggests that molecular hydrogen has a great potential in the therapy and prevention of metabolic syndrome. The study also showed that molecular hydrogen can be accumulated in the liver with glycogen after oral administration.

Effectiveness of Hydrogen Rich Water on Antioxidant Status of Subjects with Potential Metabolic Syndrome (Human)(Water)(2009)

This study showed that consuming hydrogen rich water for 8 weeks resulted in a 39% increase in the antioxidant enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and a 43% decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). TBARS is a biomarker for oxidative stress. This indicates that molecular hydrogen may help stimulate the activity of SOD inside the cells. The patients in the study also demonstrated an 8% increase in HDL-cholesterol and a 13% decrease in total cholesterol. Molecular hydrogen is a potentially novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.



Anti-inflammatory properties of molecular hydrogen: investigation on parasite-induced liver inflammation(Mouse)(Gas)(2001)

Mice were infected with the parasite Schistosoma mansoni, which causes inflammation in the liver. Then half the mice were placed in a 50L hyperbaric chamber in normal atmospheric pressures supplemented with 0.7 MPa of Molecular Hydrogen gas. Mice treated with hyperbaric molecular hydrogen were in much better shape. For example, liver fibrosis caused by oxidative stress was down by 60% in mice treated with molecular hydrogen.

Hydrogen from intestinal bacteria is protective for Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis (Mouse)(Water)(2009)

Molecular Hydrogen is released by bacteria in the intestines during carbohydrate fermentation. This study examined if internally produced molecular hydrogen could increase the host’s resistance to oxidative and inflammatory stresses. Mice were treated with or without antibiotics for 3 days. These mice were then tested for molecular hydrogen concentrations. Mice that were not treated with antibiotics had highest molecular hydrogen concentrations in the cecum (beginning of large intestine) followed by the small intestine, large intestine, liver, spleen, and blood. There was also trace levels of molecular hydrogen detected in the brain. Mice treated with mice had significantly reduced levels of molecular hydrogen in all organs tested. The study went further to determine if supplementation of molecular hydrogen infused water could help the antibiotic treated mice fight off inflammatory and oxidative stresses as well as mice with normal gut bacteria. As expected, mice supplemented with H2 water had decreased inflammatory markers (ALT and AST). The significant finding in this study was that the anti-inflammatory effect of molecular hydrogen supplemented via water was greater than anti-inflammatory effect of the molecular hydrogen released from gut bacteria.

Inhalation of hydrogen gas suppresses hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion through reducing oxidative stress (Mouse)(Gas)(2007)

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a widely used indicator for free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation. Hepatic injury was measured by recording the MDA levels in liver tissues. Hepatic tissue injury was induced in the mice by ischemia, causing Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) to form in the liver of the mice. Mice receiving 4% Hydrogen gas for their anesthetic gas had almost 0% damage to their livers caused by ROS.



 Hydrogen-rich saline reduces airway remodeling via inactivation of NF-κB in a murine model of asthma (Mouse)(Saline)(2013)

This study examined if molecular hydrogen can reduce airway inflammation. Chronic inflammation of the airway causes airway remodeling which is the main feature of chronic asthma. When molecular hydrogen infused saline was administered to the mice, molecular hydrogen decreased remodeling of the airway caused by asthma by decreasing persistent inflammation.



 Hydrogen therapy may be an effective and specific novel treatment for acute radiation syndrome (2010)

It’s well known that half of the damage caused by Ionizing Radiation is caused by Hydroxyl Radicals. Molecular Hydrogen is an effective scavenger of Hydroxyl Radicals, so this paper hypothesizes that Molecular Hydrogen will be an effective treatment for Acute Radiation Syndromes.

Hydrogen therapy may reduce the risks related to radiation-induced oxidative stress in space flight (2011)

A journal article that was published by NASA that Molecular Hydrogen has the potential to reduce risks related to radiation-induced oxidative stress in astronauts.

Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors (Human)(Water)(2011)

A randomized, placebo controlled study showed that patients receiving radiotherapy for liver tumors who were drinking molecular hydrogen water had lower ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) metabolites and higher QOL (Quality of Life) scores than patients who drank placebo water during treatment.

Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against radiation-induced immune dysfunction (Mouse)(Saline)(2014)

The immune system is a critical defense system against various environmental agents including ionizing radiation. This study examined if saline infused with molecular hydrogen could protect the immune system from damage caused by ionizing radiation. This study demonstrates that molecular hydrogen is effective in protecting the immune system by scavenging hydroxyl radicals caused by radiation. Also, molecular hydrogen may provide radioprotection effects by regulating the imbalance of T Cells.

The Potential Cardioprotective Effects of Hydrogen in Irradiated Mice (Mouse)(Water)(2010)

Irradiation of the heart can cause chronic cardiac disease. This study examined the cardioprotective effects of molecular hydrogen. This is the first study that shows that molecular hydrogen reduces the rate of mortality caused by gamma radiation. The study results showed that myocardial MDA levels were significantly lower in irradiated mice that were fed hydrogen water and that superoxide dismutase (antioxidant enzyme inside the cells) levels were higher in irradiated mice that were treated with molecular hydrogen infused water. Therefore, molecular hydrogen gives a cardioprotective effect, but further research needs to be conducted to find out additional signaling pathways of molecular hydrogen.

United States Navy – Prospects for Radioprotection

The United States armed forces have long been searching for an agent or combination of agents that will substantially increase survival and enhance postattack effectiveness of military personnel on a nuclear battlefield. This radioprotective agent must be administered shortly before or after radiation exposure to reduce early molecular, cellular, and tissue damage caused by radiation. In page 10 of the above literature, when discussing repair of radiation injury, chemical repair by hydrogen transfer is discussed. Radiation damage causes molecules to be damaged by free radicals and lose hydrogen and electrons. The article states “If a suitable hydrogen donor is in the vicinity of the damaged molecule, it can compensate for the damage by donating or transferring a hydrogen atom”. It is our understanding that Molecular Hydrogen is the perfect hydrogen donor.

Hydrogen as a New Class of Radioprotective Agent (2013)

A review of Molecular Hydrogen for its potential as a radioprotective agent. Ionizing radiation irradiates water to form hydroxyl radicals, the most dangerous form of free radical. Molecular hydrogen is an antioxidant that selectively reduces hydroxyl radicals. The radioprotective effects of molecular hydrogen was confirmed in vitro and in vivo, and it was repeated on different experimental animal models by different departments. These results are encouraging and molecular hydrogen should be examined further to solidify its status as a radioprotective agent.

Hydrogen Protects Mice From Dermatitis Caused by Local Radiation(Mouse)(Saline)(2014)

Localized radiation is still a widely accepted treatment for various types of cancer. One of the side effects of localized radiation is dermatitis. This study examined the radioprotective effects of molecular hydrogen mice. This study showed that hydrogen significantly reduced the severity of dermatitis, accelerated tissue recovery, and reduced the extent of radiation induced
weight loss in mice after a single or fractions dose.

Hydrogen-rich saline protects immunocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis (Mouse)(Cell)(Saline)(2012)

In this study it was demonstrated that molecular hydrogen infused saline reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in thymocytes and splenocytes in living mice. This study also found that molecular hydrogen rescued the radiation-caused depletion of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets.